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EDS Creative Development NIS SHOW HOPE FOR TBI Published on July 10, 2018 Edit article View stats William L. Ellis Sr.Status is online William L. Ellis Sr. EDS Brain Damage Productions at Brain Damage Studios 34 articles Severe TBI On this Page TBI Classification Systems Potential Effects of Severe TBI Meeting the Challenge of Severe TBI References Each year, TBIs contribute to a substantial number of deaths and cases of permanent disability. In fact, TBI is a contributing factor to a third (30%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States.1 In 2010, approximately 2.5 million people sustained a traumatic brain injury.2 Individuals with more severe injuries are more likely to require hospitalization. Changes in the rates of TBI-related hospitalizations vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related hospitalizations decreased between the periods of 2001–2002 and 2009–2010. However, rates for age groups 45–64 years of age and 65 years and older increased between these time periods. Rates in persons 45–64 years of age increased by almost 25% from 60.1 to 79.4 per 100,000. Rates of TBI-related hospitalizations in persons 65 years of age and older increased by more than 50%, from 191.5 to 294.0 per 100,000 during the same period, largely due to a substantial increase (39%) between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. In contrast, rates of TBI-related hospitalizations in youth 5–14 years of age fell from 54.5 to 23.1 per 100,000, decreasing by more than 50% during this period.1,2 A severe TBI not only impacts the life of an individual and their family, but it also has a large societal and economic toll. The estimated economic cost of TBI in 2010, including direct and indirect medical costs, is estimated to be approximately $76.5 billion. Additionally, the cost of fatal TBIs and TBIs requiring hospitalization, many of which are severe, account for approximately 90% of the total TBI medical costs.3,4 Lt. Col. Tim Maxwell’s Story They train together.

 

They fight together. So if wounded, why shouldn’t they go through recovery together? This was the question that Lt. Col. Tim Maxwell asked about his fellow marines being discharged from the hospital and left alone to recover from injuries of war. Read more of this story TBI Classification Systems TBI injury severity can be described using several different tools. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS),5 a clinical tool designed to assess coma and impaired consciousness, is one of the most commonly used severity scoring systems.

 

Persons with GCS scores of 3 to 8 are classified with a severe TBI, those with scores of 9 to 12 are classified with a moderate TBI, and those with scores of 13 to 15 are classified with a mild TBI. Other classification systems include the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Trauma Score, and the Abbreviated Trauma Score. Despite their limitations,6 these systems are crucial to understanding the clinical management and the likely outcomes of this injury as the prognosis for milder forms of TBIs is better than for moderate or severe TBIs.7-9 Potential Effects of Severe TBI A non-fatal severe TBI may result in an extended period of unconsciousness (coma) or amnesia after the injury. For individuals hospitalized after a TBI, almost half (43%) have a related disability one year after the injury.

 

10 A TBI may lead to a wide range of short- or long-term issues affecting: Cognitive Function (e.g., attention and memory) Motor function (e.g., extremity weakness, impaired coordination, and balance) Sensation (e.g., hearing, vision, impaired perception, and touch) Emotion (e.g., depression, anxiety, aggression, impulse control, personality changes) Approximately 5.3 million Americans are living with a TBI-related disability and the consequences of severe TBI can affect all aspects of an individual’s life.

 

11 This can include relationships with family and friends, as well as their ability to work or be employed, do household tasks, drive, and/or participate in other activities of daily living. When we look at the entirety, a lot have TBI and are functional, live lives, such as myself. life was not over it gave me great insight into life, thanks to all of you for allowing me to be as one of you and showing the scope of disability that has many blessings.